The first test mules were put into testing in , with final styling being approved on March 6, The first prototypes based on that design were tested later that year, with pilot production beginning in February , following engineering sign-off. It marked a new venture for Mercedes-Benz, finally giving it a new smaller model to compete with the likes of the Audi 80 , BMW 3 Series and Saab , as well as the more expensive versions of the many medium-sized saloons and hatchbacks from mainstream brands. Eventually after just the first year, Bremen was cleared for production of the , replacing its commercial vehicle lines, and there the was built with the first running modifications since release. Thanks to their fuel injection system, E models made more power and were more fuel efficient when compared to non-fuel injected models. The was fitted with an M
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Without prejudice to subparagraphs a and b of paragraph 1 of this Article, definitions in national laws and regulations may provide for a single concept or separate concepts. This Convention protects workers and other persons in the world of work, including employees as defined by national law and practice, as well as persons working irrespective of their contractual status, persons in training, including interns and apprentices, workers whose employment has been terminated, volunteers, jobseekers and job applicants, and individuals exercising the authority, duties or responsibilities of an employer.
This Convention applies to all sectors, whether private or public, both in the formal and informal economy, and whether in urban or rural areas. Article 3 This Convention applies to violence and harassment in the world of work occurring in the course of, linked with or arising out of work: a in the workplace, including public and private spaces where they are a place of work; b in places where the worker is paid, takes a rest break or a meal, or uses sanitary, washing and changing facilities; c during work-related trips, travel, training, events or social activities; d through work-related communications, including those enabled by information and communication technologies; e in employer-provided accommodation; and f when commuting to and from work.
Each Member which ratifies this Convention shall respect, promote and realize the right of everyone to a world of work free from violence and harassment. Such an approach should take into account violence and harassment involving third parties, where applicable, and includes: a prohibiting in law violence and harassment; b ensuring that relevant policies address violence and harassment; c adopting a comprehensive strategy in order to implement measures to prevent and combat violence and harassment; d establishing or strengthening enforcement and monitoring mechanisms; e ensuring access to remedies and support for victims; f providing for sanctions; g developing tools, guidance, education and training, and raising awareness, in accessible formats as appropriate; and h ensuring effective means of inspection and investigation of cases of violence and harassment, including through labour inspectorates or other competent bodies.
In adopting and implementing the approach referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article, each Member shall recognize the different and complementary roles and functions of governments, and employers and workers and their respective organizations, taking into account the varying nature and extent of their respective responsibilities.
Article 5 With a view to preventing and eliminating violence and harassment in the world of work, each Member shall respect, promote and realize the fundamental principles and rights at work, namely freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, the elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour, the effective abolition of child labour and the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation, as well as promote decent work.
Article 6 Each Member shall adopt laws, regulations and policies ensuring the right to equality and non-discrimination in employment and occupation, including for women workers, as well as for workers and other persons belonging to one or more vulnerable groups or groups in situations of vulnerability that are disproportionately affected by violence and harassment in the world of work.
METHODS OF APPLICATION Article 12 The provisions of this Convention shall be applied by means of national laws and regulations, as well as through collective agreements or other measures consistent with national practice, including by extending or adapting existing occupational safety and health measures to cover violence and harassment and developing specific measures where necessary.
Article 14 1. This Convention shall be binding only upon those Members of the International Labour Organization whose ratifications have been registered with the Director-General of the International Labour Office. It shall come into force twelve months after the date on which the ratifications of two Members have been registered with the Director- General. Thereafter, this Convention shall come into force for any Member twelve months after the date on which its ratification is registered. Article 15 1.
A Member which has ratified this Convention may denounce it after the expiration of ten years from the date on which the Convention first comes into force, by an act communicated to the Director-General of the International Labour Office for registration. Such denunciation shall not take effect until one year after the date on which it is registered. Each Member which has ratified this Convention and which does not, within the year following the expiration of the period of ten years mentioned in the preceding paragraph, exercise the right of denunciation provided for in this Article, will be bound for another period of ten years and, thereafter, may denounce this Convention within the first year of each new period of ten years under the terms provided for in this Article.
Article 16 1. The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall notify all Members of the International Labour Organization of the registration of all ratifications and denunciations that have been communicated by the Members of the Organization. When notifying the Members of the Organization of the registration of the second ratification that has been communicated, the Director-General shall draw the attention of the Members of the Organization to the date upon which the Convention will come into force.
Article 17 The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall communicate to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for registration in accordance with Article of the Charter of the United Nations full particulars of all ratifications and denunciations that have been registered in accordance with the provisions of the preceding Articles. Article 18 At such times as it may consider necessary, the Governing Body of the International Labour Office shall present to the General Conference a report on the working of this Convention and shall examine the desirability of placing on the agenda of the Conference the question of its revision in whole or in part.
Article 19 1. Should the Conference adopt a new Convention revising this Convention, then, unless the new Convention otherwise provides: a the ratification by a Member of the new revising Convention shall ipso jure involve the immediate denunciation of this Convention, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 15 above, if and when the new revising Convention shall have come into force; b as from the date when the new revising Convention comes into force, this Convention shall cease to be open to ratification by the Members.
This Convention shall in any case remain in force in its actual form and content for those Members which have ratified it but have not ratified the revising Convention. Article 20 The English and French versions of the text of this Convention are equally authoritative.
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