It is a critical history, treating translations wherever appropriate as literary works in their own right, and reveals the vital part played by translators and translation in shaping the literary culture of the English-speaking world, both for writers and readers. It thus offers new and often challenging perspectives on the history of literature in English. As well as examining the translations and their wider impact, it explores the processes by which they came into being and were disseminated, and provides extensive bibliographical and biographical reference material. In the period covered by Volume 2 comes a drive, unprecedented in its energy and scope, to bring foreign writing of all kinds into English.

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Biography[ edit ] Catford was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. After his secondary and university studies, he studied phonetics. He met his wife, Lotte, while he was living in Jerusalem. Lotte was from Vienna and spoke German. However, she had moved to Palestine and while she was young she learned other languages, such as Hebrew , English and Arabic. Catford founded the School of Applied Linguistics at the University of Edinburgh , as well as another department in the same university that undertook the mapping of different English dialects throughout Scotland.

Catford could identify where people were from exclusively through their speech. His expertise — which included formal phonetics , the aerodynamic and physiological production of speech, phonetic peculiarities in speech, and an astounding ability to reproduce words, and even speeches, backwards — led him to be invited to the University of Michigan.

He taught most of the Linguistics subjects in the same university. He retired in , but did not become inactive. On the contrary: he was invited to some of the most prestigious universities around the globe, including those in Istanbul, Jerusalem and California. He published numerous articles, participated in many conferences and continued to lecture and give presentations, especially at the University of Michigan.

Many of his original works are kept there. He advised many university students who wanted to follow a career in Linguistics. Catford had two children from his marriage with Lotte: Lorna and Julian.

Among his many articles, published essays and other works, it is worth highlighting the following: A Practical Introduction to Phonetics, 2nd.


A Linguistic Theory Of Translation Oxford Univ. Press ( 1965)

Bam For English we can probably regard consultative style as the unmarked style in the spoken mode, though formal style may be the unmarked style in the written mode. In both of these translations we have retained the two lexical items, man and see, unchanged, but have replaced all the grammatical items by equivalent French or Arabic grammatical items. The exponent of P, if present, is one or more foot preceding the tonic, and carrying one of a restricted range of pretonic intonation contours. Lignuistic is changes of these types which we refer to as category-shifts. An additional modification, reduced r is occasionally useful.


J. C. Catford



A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language & Language Learning)


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