The centrifuges are commonly used to measure: water and sediment in crude oil, fuel oil and middle distillate fuel; the precipitation number of lubricating oils and insolubles in used lubricating oils. It is ideal for laboratory settings or refineries using mL capacity tube configurations. It is usually installed on benchtops for testing crude oil or refined petroleum products. The fully insulated centrifuge prevents heat loss and allows for more accurate temperature control.
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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U. Department of Defense. NOTE 1—With some types of fuel oils such as residual fuel oils ordistillate fuel oils containing residual components, it is difficult to obtainwater or sediment contents with this test method.
The values given in parentheses are for informationonly. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. For a specificprecautionary statement, see 6. Referenced Documents2. This test method has been approved by thesponsoring committees and accepted by the Cooperating Societies in accordancewith established procedures.
Current edition approved June 1, Published July Originally approvedin DOI: United States Summary of Test Method3. Aftercentrifugation, the volume of the higher density water andsediment layer at the bottom of the tube is read. Significance and Use4. A determination of water and sediment content isrequired to measure accurately net volumes of actual fuel oil insales, taxation, exchanges, and custody transfers. In cases where theimpact on the results may be significant, the user is advised toconsider using another test method, such as Test MethodD The trunnion cups and cushions shallfirmly support the tubes when the centrifuge is in motion.
Thecentrifuge shall be enclosed by a metal shield or case strongenough to eliminate danger if any breakage occurs. The thermostatic control shallbe capable of maintaining the temperature within these limitsand operate safely if there is a flammable atmosphere. NOTE 3—Some heated centrifuges maintain the bowl at a pressureslightly below atmospheric pressure and reduce the hazards associatedwith vapors and gasses, produced by samples and solvents used in thetests, by discharging any vapors to a non-hazardous area.
The graduations, numbered asshown in Fig. Include the verification or certification for eachmark through the 0. Do not use thetube if the scale error exceeds the applicable tolerance in Table1. See Note 4. Water saturation oftoluene may also be carried out at this higher testing temperature.
SeeAnnex A1. Keep away from heat, sparks, and open flame. Vapor harmful. Toluene is toxic. Particular care must be taken to avoidbreathing the vapor and to protect the eyes. Keep containerclosed. Use with adequate ventilation. Avoid prolonged orrepeated contact with the skin. NOTE 5—Some oils may require other solvents or solvent-demulsifiercombinations.
Those agreed upon between the purchaser and the sellermay be used. SeeAnnex A1 for the solvent-water saturation procedure. Always use the demulsifier in the form of a demulsifier-solventstock solution or be premixed with the solvent to be used in thetest. Using a pipette, add 50 mL of the water-saturated solvent 6. Read the top of the meniscus at both the 50 mL and mLmarks. Stopper the tubes tightly and shake vigorously until thecontents are thoroughly mixed.
Consequently, invert the tubes at aposition below eye level so that contact will be avoided if thestopper is blown out. Spin for 10 min at a rate,calculated from the equation given in 5. Below 0. If less than 0. If no water orsediment is visible, record the volume as 0.
Return thetubes without agitation to the centrifuge and spin for another10 min at the same rate. In general, not more than two spinnings are required. If the differenceis greater than one subdivision or, for readings of 0.