CAROLINGIAN CHRONICLES ROYAL FRANKISH ANNALS PDF

The Royal Frankish Annals are an official, or at least semiofficial, account of the major political, military, and religious events of Carolingian history from to The Royal Frankish Annals thus cover events during the reigns of Pippin the Short, Charlemagne, and Louis the Pious, the later part of whose reign is surveyed also in the history of Nithard. The chronicle includes the official Carolingian version of such significant moments as the replacement of the Merovingian line by Pippin and his coronation in , the wars and imperial coronation of Charlemagne, and the early and successful years in the reign of Louis the Pious. Bertin, which surveyed events in the Western Frankish kingdom until and were written in part by Hincmar of Rheims, and the Annals of Fulda, which covered the Eastern Frankish kingdom until

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The Royal Frankish Annals are an official, or at least semiofficial, account of the major political, military, and religious events of Carolingian history from to The Royal Frankish Annals thus cover events during the reigns of Pippin the Short, Charlemagne, and Louis the Pious, the later part of whose reign is surveyed also in the history of Nithard.

The chronicle includes the official Carolingian version of such significant moments as the replacement of the Merovingian line by Pippin and his coronation in , the wars and imperial coronation of Charlemagne, and the early and successful years in the reign of Louis the Pious.

Bertin, which surveyed events in the Western Frankish kingdom until and were written in part by Hincmar of Rheims, and the Annals of Fulda, which covered the Eastern Frankish kingdom until The Royal Frankish Annals were most likely composed by a number of different authors over a prolonged period.

First written in or as part of the general revival of letters, especially history, under Charlemagne, the Royal Frankish Annals were written by several distinct hands and can be divided into three or four sections.

Like the minor annals of the period, the Royal Frankish Annals were divided into year-by-year entries, with short discussions of the major events of each year. The next section covers the period from to , and again its author or authors recorded events that they lived through. The final section before the division into two main annals covers the period from to ; it can be subdivided even further, with a break at The style of the final section seems to have improved over the earlier sections, and it has been suggested that the author of part of it was the archchaplain of Louis the Pious.

But the identity of any of the annalists remains uncertain, although it is likely that the archchaplain of the royal palace had a hand in the composition of the Royal Frankish Annals and equally as likely that Einhard did not.

Although he is no longer held to be responsible, Einhard was traditionally associated with the revision of the Royal Frankish Annals ordered by Louis the Pious. The entries for the years to were revised to improve the style and were expanded with information from other sources, with the entries for several years being completely or almost completely rewritten.

Although written from the Carolingian perspective, the Royal Frankish Annals remain one of the most important sources for the events of the Carolingian period. Rosamond McKitterick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , pp. Thought and Letters in Western Europe, a. The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, London: Longman The Annals of St.

Bertin: Ninth Century Histories. Michael Idomir Allen. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe. FamilyThe identity of his father is not certain. Charles the Great A.

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Carolingian Chronicles

The annalists pay particular attention to the military campaigns of the Carolingian kings, justifying their actions in terms of a grand narrative of Carolingian peacekeeping and conquest in the name of expanding the Christian faith. The overthrow of the Merovingians is also portrayed in such a way as to legitimize the transfer of royal power between dynasties, emphasizing Carolingian adherence to Frankish traditions and the approval of Pope Zacharias in the matter. The revised text, however, incorporates these events while maintaining a positive tone towards the emperor, presented as a peerless leader in battle. Louis the Pious giving penance at Attigny in

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