It was probably in the years —53 that Boccaccio composed the Decameron in the form in which it is read today. As the frame narrative opens, 10 young people seven women and three men flee plague-stricken Florence to a delightful villa in nearby Fiesole. Each rules for a day and sets stipulations for the daily tales to be told by all participants, resulting in a collection of pieces. Each daily collection of stories takes a different tone or theme.
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Miniature by Taddeo Crivelli in a manuscript of c. To pass the evenings, each member of the party tells a story each night, except for one day per week for chores, and the holy days during which they do no work at all, resulting in ten nights of storytelling over the course of two weeks. Thus, by the end of the fortnight they have told stories. Each of the ten characters is charged as King or Queen of the company for one of the ten days in turn.
This charge extends to choosing the theme of the stories for that day, and all but two days have topics assigned: examples of the power of fortune; examples of the power of human will; love tales that end tragically; love tales that end happily; clever replies that save the speaker; tricks that women play on men; tricks that people play on each other in general; examples of virtue. Only Dioneo, who usually tells the tenth tale each day, has the right to tell a tale on any topic he wishes, due to his wit.
These framing interludes frequently include transcriptions of Italian folk songs. The basic plots of the stories include mocking the lust and greed of the clergy; tensions in Italian society between the new wealthy commercial class and noble families; and the perils and adventures of traveling merchants.
Analysis[ edit ] This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.
Lauretta, one of the narrators of the Decameron, painted by Jules Joseph Lefebvre Throughout the Decameron the mercantile ethic prevails and predominates. The commercial and urban values of quick wit, sophistication, and intelligence are treasured, while the vices of stupidity and dullness are cured, or punished. While these traits and values may seem obvious to the modern reader, they were an emerging feature in Europe with the rise of urban centers and a monetized economic system beyond the traditional rural feudal and monastery systems which placed greater value on piety and loyalty.
Throughout runs the common medieval theme of Lady Fortune , and how quickly one can rise and fall through the external influences of the " Wheel of Fortune ".
The Roman Catholic Church , priests, and religious belief become the satirical source of comedy throughout. This was part of a wider historical trend in the aftermath of the Black Death which saw widespread discontent with the church.
Many details of the Decameron are infused with a medieval sense of numerological and mystical significance. It is further supposed[ by whom?
Boccaccio himself notes that the names he gives for these ten characters are in fact pseudonyms chosen as "appropriate to the qualities of each". The Italian names of the seven women, in the same most likely significant order as given in the text, are Pampinea, Fiammetta, Filomena, Emilia, Lauretta, Neifile, and Elissa.
The men, in order, are Panfilo, Filostrato, and Dioneo. Boccaccio focused on the naturalness of sex by combining and interlacing sexual experiences with nature. Boccaccio borrowed the plots of almost all his stories just as later writers borrowed from him. Although he consulted only French, Italian and Latin sources, some of the tales have their origin in such far-off lands as India, the Middle East, Spain, and other places. Some were already centuries old.
The frame narrative structure though not the characters or plot originates from the Panchatantra ,[ citation needed ] which was written in Sanskrit before AD and came to Boccaccio through a chain of translations that includes Old Persian , Arabic , Hebrew , and Latin.
Even the description of the central motivating event of the narrative, the Black Plague which Boccaccio surely witnessed , is not original, but is based on a description in the Historia gentis Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon , who lived in the 8th century. Some scholars have suggested that some of the tales for which no prior source has been found may still not have been invented by Boccaccio, but may have been circulating in the local oral tradition, of which Boccaccio availed himself.
Boccaccio himself says that he heard some of the tales orally. In VII, 1, for example, he claims to have heard the tale from an old woman who heard it as a child. The story of Cimone and Efigenia c. Scholars have even been able to verify the existence of less famous characters, such as the tricksters Bruno and Buffalmacco and their victim Calandrino.
Still other fictional characters are based on real people, such as the Madonna Fiordaliso from tale II, 5, who is derived from a Madonna Flora who lived in the red light district of Naples. Boccaccio often intentionally muddled historical II, 3 and geographical V, 2 facts for his narrative purposes.
Within the tales of The Decameron, the principal characters are usually developed through their dialogue and actions, so that by the end of the story they seem real and their actions logical given their context. The table below lists all attempts at a complete English translation of the book. The information on pre translations is compiled from the G.
Dekameron analiza dela – Đovani Bokačo
Pampinea es designada reina de la jornada y organiza la partida. De esta manera, al terminar la quincena , han contado cien cuentos. Toma siempre la iniciativa. Neifile "nueva amante" , reina de la tercera jornada. Destaca por su belleza. Filostrato "vencido por el amor" , rey en la cuarta jornada. Fiammetta la dama amada por Boccaccio , reina de la quinta jornada.