To allow flexibility in the degree of elevation, apple boxes are available as full 8" high , half 4" high , quarter 2" high and eighth 1" high sizes. Art Director Designs and oversees the construction of the sets, managing the set designers, graphic artists and illustrators. Assistant Director Assists the director in planning the timeline and overseeing the day-to-day management of cast and crew. Bar Clamp Bar Clamps aka Furniture Clamps are used to span between larger objects in order to facilitate mounting a small light fixture with a Bar Clamp Adapter. Best Person formerly known as Best Boy Gaffers and Key Grips each may utilize a Best Person, who serves as second in command for their department, coordinating personnel and equipment.
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To allow flexibility in the degree of elevation, apple boxes are available as full 8" high , half 4" high , quarter 2" high and eighth 1" high sizes. Art Director Designs and oversees the construction of the sets, managing the set designers, graphic artists and illustrators. Assistant Director Assists the director in planning the timeline and overseeing the day-to-day management of cast and crew. Bar Clamp Bar Clamps aka Furniture Clamps are used to span between larger objects in order to facilitate mounting a small light fixture with a Bar Clamp Adapter.
Best Person formerly known as Best Boy Gaffers and Key Grips each may utilize a Best Person, who serves as second in command for their department, coordinating personnel and equipment. It can serve a variety of purposes including using it with pipe to create a temporary overhead grid.
Blonde Blondes are Watt open-faced light fixtures typically of Italian manufacture, formerly sold by Strand Lighting. Butterfly Frame A Butterfly Frame is a large aluminum frame made to hold various fabrics for controlling light, usually outdoors. C Stands C Stands are used to hold a variety of reflectors, gobos, etc.
Craft Service Catering service provided on set or location. Cucoloris A Cucoloris is used to project a shadow pattern. Also referred to as cookies, they include hard cookies, made from plywood or poster board with random shapes cut out; soft cookies, made from plastic impregnated screen with random shapes cut out; and natural cookies, which include tree limbs or other objects that can be placed between the light and the subject.
Cutters Cutters are large or odd shaped flags used to "cut" the light off certain areas of the set. Sizes larger than 30" x 36" as well as odd shaped ones such as 12" x 42" or 18" x 48" are considered cutters. Dailies The raw, unedited footage of the daily shoots. Dot A small round scrim, net or solid for controlling light in tight situations such as a table top.
Duvetyne Duvetyne is a black, cotton fabric used to make Flags, Cutters, Butterflies as well as to mask off objects or areas or reduce reflected light. Executive Producer Typically a major investor on the production. Flag A Duvetyne-covered rectangular frame with a mounting pin used to create shadow areas on the set. Gaffer Head of the electrical department responsible for designing and executing the lighting design.
Grip Grips are responsible for rigging cameras, the operation of cranes and dollies, erecting sets and non-electrical lighting control with the use of butterflies, cutters and cookies, etc.
Junior Junior refers to 2K light fixtures. This is the opposite of the Baby mounting system for safety purposes. Key Light The main or primary light source used in a scene. Line Producer Manages the budget for a film project. Location Manager Scouts locations and obtains the necessary permits for filming in those locations. Mafer Clamp With a padded grip surface and a unique design combining one flat and one v-notched jaw, Mafer Clamps are used to attach fixtures and equipment to a variety of irregular surfaces including furniture.
Offset Arm An Offset arm allows a stand-mounted lighting fixture to be extended off center over a wall or other object. Producer Manages the business end of a film project, from finances to hiring personnel. Production Assistant Handles miscellaneous tasks and errands necessary for the daily operation on set or location. Production Designer The creative director on the production responsible for designing the "look" of the film including settings, costumes and makeup.
Production Manager Supervises the physical aspects of the production, responsible for keeping filming on schedule and within budget. Redhead Redheads are Watt open-faced light fixtures see Blonde above. Sandbags used in film and video production are specifically made for this purpose and include a handle for ease of movement as well as a "built in" fold which makes it easier to get them to drape over uneven objects such as the legs, or feet of various equipment stands.
Second Assistant Camera Operates the clapperboard at the beginning of takes. Oversees the organization of camera equipment and transport from location to location. Set Decorator In charge of decorating the film set including the furnishings and anything else that will be seen in the film. Special Effects Supervisor Manages the special effects crew, responsible for moving set elements.
Sidearm A Side Arm can be clamped anywhere on a stand riser allowing a light or light control devise to be placed anywhere between the top and bottom of a stand. They are available with "baby" or "junior" fittings. When using a sidearm, the stand should be adequately weighted sandbagged on the opposite leg to prevent tipping.
Sound Blanket A sound blanket is used as added sound insulation or to dampen the sound in a space with otherwise hard surfaces, or it may even be used to block light through a window or door. Triple Header Baby Headers allow several light fixtures to be mounted in a small floor space. Headers are mounted on a light stand allowing up to five light fixtures to be hung on a single stand. Wall Spreader Available for use with either 2x4 or 2x6 lumber, a Wall Spreader is actually two pieces of hardware.
One piece is essentially a padded plate which attaches to one end of the board, while the other is telescoping piece attached to the other end which allows for adjustment to firmly span a vertical or horizontal opening.
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Lighting Directors & Gaffers In Los Angeles Shine
Focal Press c Physical description xvi, p. To try to borrow a document, make an inter-library loan request via a library of which you are a member, for instance your university library. Share your thoughts with other customers. Subject Cinematography — Lighting — Handbooks, manuals, etc. The diagrams are exceptional and can assist anyone from the novice to the professional. Xenons; camera synchronous strobes; underwater units; and lighting effects units.
Set Lighting Technician's Handbook: Film Lighting Equipment, Practice, and Electrical Distribution
Description[ edit ] Gaff rig remains the most popular fore-aft rig for schooner and barquentine mainsails[ citation needed ] and other course sails , and spanker sails on a square rigged vessel are always gaff rigged. On other rigs, particularly the sloop , ketch and yawl , gaff rigged sails were once common but have now been largely replaced by the Bermuda rig sail,  which, in addition to being simpler than the gaff rig, usually allows vessels to sail closer to the direction from which the wind is blowing i. Small craft attach the peak halyard to the gaff with a wire span with eyes at both ends looped around the gaff and held in place with small wooden chocks, larger craft have more than one span. Peak halyards pull upwards, approaching the gaff at right angles. It is a line attached to the end of the gaff which prevents the gaff from sagging downwind. Gaff vangs are difficult to rig on the aft -most sail, so are typically only found on schooners or ketches, and then only on the foresail or mainsail.