KOTLER DIRECCION DE MARKETING PDF

From Tools to Purpose As Kotler sees it, marketing is not just advertising writ large. He was one of the first to argue that companies should be customer-centered. The field has evolved from what Kotler calls Marketing 1. These are the sorts of questions social marketing tried to answer. But the concept was eventually overshadowed by the rise of behavioral economics—a cross-pollination of psychology and economics that soon became the darling of the public policy sphere. So behavioral economics is nothing new.

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From Tools to Purpose As Kotler sees it, marketing is not just advertising writ large. He was one of the first to argue that companies should be customer-centered. The field has evolved from what Kotler calls Marketing 1. These are the sorts of questions social marketing tried to answer. But the concept was eventually overshadowed by the rise of behavioral economics—a cross-pollination of psychology and economics that soon became the darling of the public policy sphere.

So behavioral economics is nothing new. It is just another word for marketing. Then they determine which features a product should have, how to make it broadly appealing, and how that product can contribute to improving the material, emotional, and spiritual well-being of customers.

While it is true that public policy is an effective way to address such problems, Kotler thinks that corporations themselves should be the ones to encourage better behavior. Or consider the challenge of convincing people to use less water in California. The idea is that the same marketing tools that are used to promote consumption can also be used to discourage consumption for the sake of improving health outcomes or protecting the environment.

Many companies have already built sustainability into their thinking and planning. The outdoor clothing company Patagonia has endorsed sustainability by using recycled material and offering its customers free repairs on any clothing item. Kotler points to companies like Unilever—which internalizes the cost of carbon emissions and reflects that cost in its prices—and Timberland—which only uses suppliers who themselves are committed to sustainable business practice—as exemplars of a growing trend.

For Kotler, these companies are going beyond mere corporate social responsibility. CSR usually involves maximizing profits and incidentally doing good for society.

Social marketing and sustainable marketing, by contrast, require doing good in the very course of running the business. With information about corporate behavior more accessible than ever before, customers are no longer passive agents in the marketing process.

Increasingly, they have a role in driving corporate social change. To take advantage of this shift toward customer empowerment, Kotler proposes implementing a Good Company Index that would force companies to take seriously a new set of competitive factors. The market shares of good companies would grow faster, creating a virtuous cycle. Over time, more companies would have to practice sustainability, pay a fair wage, and not overpay management if it wants its brands to be preferred.

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Este proceso de inicia antes de que exista un producto, y contina durante el desarrollo del mismo y despus de su lanzamiento. La cadena de valor: identifica 9 actividades estratgicamente relevantes, 5 primarias logstica de entrada, operaciones, logstica de salida, marketing y servicio , y 4 de apoyo aprovisionamiento, desarrollo de la tecnologa, gestin de RRHH e infraestructura de la empresa. Competencias centrales: Empresas que se centran en el diseo de productos y en su desarrollo y comercializacin. Una competencia central tiene 3 caractersticas: Es una fuente de ventaja competitiva, y hace una contribucin significativa a los beneficios percibidos por el cliente, tiene aplicaciones en una gran variedad de mercados y es difcil que los competidores la imiten. El rol central de la planificacin estratgica: Casi todas las empresas tienen cuatro niveles organizacionales: corporativo, de divisin, de unidad de negocios y de producto. El plan de marketing es el instrumento central para dirigir y coordinar el esfuerzo de marketing, el cual opera en dos niveles: estratgico y tctico.

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