Princess Gulbabadan was the granddaughter of Amir Timurid. He sat on the throne after the death of Babar. He faced trouble due to disobedience of his brothers Kamran, Askari, and Hindal. Humayun went to Kabul and later stayed in Persia for many years. He took back the throne with the help of Persian king.
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Background[ edit ] The decision of Babur to divide the territories of his empire between two of his sons was unusual in India, although it had been a common Central Asian practice since the time of Genghis Khan. Unlike most monarchies , which practised primogeniture , the Timurids followed the example of Genghis and did not leave an entire kingdom to the eldest son.
Although under that system only a Chingissid could claim sovereignty and khanal authority, any male Chinggisid within a given sub-branch had an equal right to the throne though the Timurids were not Chinggisid in their paternal ancestry. He had ruled only four years, and not all umarah nobles viewed Humayun as the rightful ruler. Indeed, earlier, when Babur had become ill, some of the nobles had tried to install his Brother-in-law, Mahdi Khwaja, as ruler.
Although this attempt failed, it was a sign of problems to come. When Humayun came to the throne of the Mughal Empire , several of his brothers revolted against him. Another brother Khalil Mirza — supported Humayun but was assassinated. The Emperor commenced construction of a tomb for his brother in , but this was not yet finished when Humayun was forced to flee to Persia.
Halfway through this offensive Humayun had to abandon it and concentrate on Gujarat, where a threat from Ahmed Shah had to be met. Humayun was victorious annexing Gujarat , Malwa , Champaner and the great fort of Mandu.
Humayun gathered an army and marched on Bahadur. Within a month he had captured the forts of Mandu and Champaner. However, instead of pressing his attack, Humayun ceased the campaign and consolidated his newly conquered territory. Sultan Bahadur, meanwhile escaped and took up refuge with the Portuguese. He began to gather his army together hoping for a rapid and decisive siege of the Mughal capital.
Upon hearing this alarming news, Humayun quickly marched his troops back to Agra allowing Bahadur to easily regain control of the territories Humayun had recently taken. In February , however, Bahadur was killed when a botched plan to kidnap the Portuguese viceroy ended in a fire-fight that the Sultan lost.
The stores of grain at Gauri, the largest in the empire, were emptied, and Humayun arrived to see corpses littering the roads. Further provoking the rebellion, Hindal ordered that the Khutba, or sermon, in the main mosque surrounded.
He brokered a deal with Hindal providing that his brother would cease all acts of disloyalty  in return for a share in the new empire, which Kamran would create once Humayun was deposed. This was to become an entrenched battle in which both sides spent a lot of time digging themselves into positions. The major part of the Mughal army, the artillery, was now immobile, and Humayun decided to engage in some diplomacy using Muhammad Aziz as ambassador.
Humayun agreed to allow Sher Shah to rule over Bengal and Bihar, but only as provinces granted to him by his Emperor, Humayun, falling short of outright sovereignty. Thus honour would, supposedly, be satisfied. That very night, his army approached the Mughal camp and finding the Mughal troops unprepared with a majority asleep, they advanced and killed most of them.
The Emperor survived by swimming across the Ganges using an air-filled "water skin", and quietly returned to Agra. Humayun once again not only pardoned his brothers for plotting against him, but even forgave Hindal for his outright betrayal. With his armies travelling at a leisurely pace, Sher Shah was gradually drawing closer and closer to Agra. This was a serious threat to the entire family, but Humayun and Kamran squabbled over how to proceed.
Kamran withdrew after Humayun refused to make a quick attack on the approaching enemy, instead opting to build a larger army under his own name. Humayun was soundly defeated. When he reached Sirhind , Humayun sent an ambassador carrying the message "I have left you the whole of Hindustan [i. Leave Lahore alone, and let Sirhind be a boundary between you and me. You should go there. Instead, Kamran approached Sher Shah and proposed that he actually revolt against his brother and side with Sher Shah in return for most of the Punjab.
Sher Shah dismissed his help, believing it not to be required, though word soon spread to Lahore about the treacherous proposal, and Humayun was urged to make an example of Kamran and kill him.
Humayun refused, citing the last words of his father, Babur, "Do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it. In many accounts Humayun mentions how he and his pregnant wife had to trace their steps through the desert at the hottest time of year.
Their rations were low, and they had little to eat; even drinking water was a major problem in the desert. Humayun was later to describe this incident as the lowest point in his life.
Humayun asked that his brothers join him as he fell back into Sindh. While the previously rebellious Hindal Mirza remained loyal and was ordered to join his brothers in Kandahar. Kamran Mirza and Askari Mirza instead decided to head to the relative peace of Kabul. This was to be a definitive schism in the family. Humayun headed for Sindh because he expected aid from the Emir of Sindh, Hussein Umrani, whom he had appointed and who owed him his allegiance.
Also, his wife Hamida hailed from Sindh; she was the daughter of a prestigious pir family a pir is an Islamic religious guide of Persian heritage long settled in Sindh. Humayun sought refuge with the Hindu ruler of the oasis town of Amarkot now part of Sindh province. The date of birth is well established because Humayun consulted his astronomer to utilise the astrolabe and check the location of the planets.
The infant was the long-awaited heir-apparent to the year-old Humayun and the answer of many prayers. Shortly after the birth, Humayun and his party left Amarkot for Sindh, leaving Akbar behind, who was not ready for the grueling journey ahead in his infancy. He was later adopted by Askari Mirza. For a change, Humayun was not deceived in the character of the man on whom he has pinned his hopes.
While in Sindh, Humayun alongside Emir Hussein Umrani, gathered horses and weapons and formed new alliances that helped regain lost territories. Until finally Humayun had gathered hundreds of Sindhi and Baloch tribesmen alongside his Mughals and then marched towards Kandahar and later Kabul, thousands more gathered by his side as Humayun continually declared himself the rightful Timurid heir of the first Mughal Emperor, Babur.
After Humayun set out from his expedition in Sindh , along with camels mostly wild and loads of grain, he set off to join his brothers in Kandahar after crossing the Indus River on 11 July along with the ambition to regain the Mughal Empire and overthrow the Suri dynasty.
Among the tribes that had sworn allegiance to Humayun were the Magsi, Rind and many others. His other brother, Askari Mirza, was now ordered to gather an army and march on Humayun. When Humayun received word of the approaching hostile army he decided against facing them, and instead sought refuge elsewhere. Akbar was left behind in camp close to Kandahar, as it was December, too cold and dangerous to include the month-old toddler in the march through the mountains of the Hindu Kush.
Humayun fled to the refuge of the Safavid Empire in Persia, marching with 40 men, his wife Bega Begum ,  and her companion through mountains and valleys. These indignities continued during the month it took them to reach Herat , however after their arrival they were reintroduced to the finer things in life. Upon entering the city his army was greeted with an armed escort, and they were treated to lavish food and clothing.
They were given fine accommodations and the roads were cleared and cleaned before them. Here Humayun went sightseeing and was amazed at the Persian artwork and architecture he saw: much of this was the work of the Timurid Sultan Husayn Bayqarah and his ancestor, princess Gauhar Shad , thus he was able to admire the work of his relatives and ancestors at first hand.
Humayun was amazed at their work and asked if they would work for him if he were to regain the sovereignty of Hindustan: they agreed. With so much going on Humayun did not even meet the Shah until July, some six months after his arrival in Persia.
After a lengthy journey from Herat the two met in Qazvin where a large feast and parties were held for the event. The meeting of the two monarchs is depicted in a famous wall-painting in the Chehel Sotoun Forty Columns palace in Esfahan.
The Shah urged that Humayun convert from Sunni to Shia Islam , and Humayun eventually accepted, in order to keep himself and several hundred followers alive. Instead the Shah staged a celebration for Humayun, with tents, an imperial Persian carpet, 12 musical bands and "meat of all kinds".
Here the Shah announced that all this, and 12, elite cavalry[ citation needed ] were his to lead an attack on his brother Kamran. Kandahar and onward[ edit ].
Humayun Nama . ھما یوں نامہ ۔ گل بدن بیگم
Doull History, Art and Culture. Beveridge, Annette Susannah, ed. Beveridge translated it into English Beveridge affectionately called her Princess Rosebud. Princes of the Mughal Empire, It is also believed that Akbar asked his aunt to write down from her memory so that Abul Fazl could use the information in his own writings about the Emperor Akbar. Her arrival in Mecca caused quite a stir and people from as far as Syria and Asia Minor swarmed to Mecca to get a share of the bounty.
Humayun Nama by Gulbadan Begam Download Free Pdf
Takora Learn how and when to remove these template messages. She had to live ih Kabul with one of her step brothers, who later tried to recruit her husband to join him against Humayun. Two years later, inshe bore Humayun a son named Akbar, the greatest of the Mughal rulers. Two years later Babur set out on his last expedition across the Indus to conquer an empire in India.
The history of Humayun = Humayun-nama
Humayun Nama Urdu By Gulbadan Begum Pdf